The Middle East, despite being one of the worst culprits of CO2 emissions, contributes little in the fight against climate change.
So it was welcome news to hear in September an Islamic call on rich countries and oil producing nations to end fossil fuel use by 2050 with the Islamic Climate Declaration in Istanbul.
But how will the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC) take a lead in combating climate change, and in supporting countries like Bangladesh that are fighting the consequences of global warming, even though they make little contribution to its causes? Up till now, the OIC’s record on this has been poor.
A 2007 study concluded that the rich Arab states in the OIC had been reluctant to take a lead on addressing climate change: “… efforts by wealthier Muslim states are imbalanced, with many of them doing very little and not acknowledging the urgency of the issue. Saudi Arabia, who holds most of the purse strings of the OIC, has long been a sceptic of climate change.”
Indeed, the response of Saudi Arabia’s lead climate change negotiator at the last significant COP meeting in Copenhagen, Mohammad Al-Sabban, said it all. In response to the leaked emails from the University of East Anglia’s Climatic Research Unit, he said: “It appears from the details of the scandal that there is no relationship whatsoever between human activities and climate change.”
If we also look at annual CO2 emissions per capita in the Gulf states (International Energy Agency figures for 2007), it is immediately apparent that the figures are much worse than even for the United States, which is usually seen as the villain of the piece.
For example, Qatar’s annual emissions stand at 58.01 tonnes per capita, the United Arab Emirates’ at 29.91 tonnes per capita, Bahrain’s at 28.23, and Kuwait’s at 25.09 tonnes per capita, whereas the figure for USA is 19.10 tonnes per capita
These emissions are even more astonishing when compared with the figure for Bangladesh, which stands at 0.25 tonnes per capita. It does make you wonder what is quite happening in these rich Arab Gulf states that they are releasing such huge amounts of CO2 emissions.
As for discussions on climate change amongst the Arab states, here again the problem is the reluctance of the ruling elites in oil-rich countries to support any measures that might reduce demand for oil and petrol. This, despite the fact that the Middle East is particularly vulnerable to rising temperatures, with vast areas of agricultural land between Egypt and Iraq expected to lose fertility as a result of global warming.
A UN Population Fund (UNFPA) report on climate change in Cairo pointed out that 15% of people in the Arab world already have limited or no access to potable water and that water scarcity induced by climate change was expected to cut food production in the region by half.
They called for more co-operation between the Arab League, UNFPA, and Arab NGOs to help governments draw up appropriate policies.
The Lebanon-based Arab Forum for Environment and Development (AFED) criticised the near complete lack of research data on climate change in Arab countries and called on Arab nations to immediately draw up adaptation and mitigation plans. One of the authors stated that “we have no data about the effects the greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere will have on our coastal zones, even though we know they are very vulnerable,” adding that this makes creating plans to reduce risks from climate change difficult.
Not surprisingly, we have come to expect very little from the OIC in such global environmental summits where the negotiations on behalf of the developing world are undertaken by the G77 plus China. We hear much talk about the importance of the ummah as the basis for international unity among Muslims, but the oil-rich states have so far shown little sense of unity with their co-religionists over as critical an issue for mankind as climate change and global warming.
In addition to the conference of the parties reaching an agreement on limiting global warming to 2C over pre-industrial levels, the other bone of contention at the Paris Summit is clearly money. That is, how much wealthy countries will be paying poor ones to help them deal with climate change. Given the huge sovereign funds that many of the oil-rich Muslim-majority states are sitting on, derived essentially from the sale of hydrocarbons, and given that the burning of these fuels makes a major contribution to greenhouse gases, you might think the oil producers would feel some moral obligation to the nations who suffer the consequences of global warming.
Moreover, at present, the huge funds that the oil-producers possess are usually invested into property and assets in the developed world, when investment in the developing world in green industries and the low carbon economy could well give better returns and certainly a better conscience.
Now, that is not too much of a grand idea for all those funds standing idle in bank accounts in the world’s major cities. In the meantime, some zakat to those on the front line of climate change in countries like the Maldives and Bangladesh is surely not too much to ask.
So the jury is out on whether the OIC will take the theological lead, given by the participants of the Islamic Climate Declaration in Istanbul, that the world’s 1.6 billion Muslims have a religious duty to fight climate change, as the words of the Qur’an tell us: “Not to strut arrogantly on the Earth.”
The above blog was been published in Dhaka Tribune on the 22nd of October.